Quality mushroom seeds are necessary for successful in Mushroom cultivation. ‘Eco-care & Aware’ has taken initiative in providing quality seeds to interested farmers in the name of Eco-Mushroom. Basically we provide two types of mushroom seeds namely Paddy Straw and Oyster(Prepared in Bottles, see Picture). Paddy straw Mushroom are grown throughout the year in Odisha. But Oyster mushroom are generally grown in winter season only. These two types of mushroom can also be grown throughout the Indian Subcontinent.
We can deliver quality Mushroom Seeds at the following Locations :
Odisha : Throughout the state Odisha (All district head quarters)
Chhatisgarh : At Raipur & Bhilai
Jhadakhand : At Ranchi, Jamsedpur (Tata)
Andhra Pradesh : At Visakhapatanam(Vizak / Waltior), Vizianagaram, Vijayawada & Rajamundry
Telengana : At Hyderbad
West Bengal : At Kolkata, Durgapur & Asansol
Contact for Buying Mushroom Seeds/ Spawn :
Abhishek Kumar Sadhu
Programme Manager, ECO-MUSHROOM
M- 07873580870 / 09438298830
PADDY STRAW MUSHROOM CULTIVATION PROFIT ANALYSIS :
Unlike other agriculture practices, mushroom farming(Paddy Straw) has a production cycle of only 15 days. ie farmers can get their return from mushroom farming within 15 days, that too 3-4 times of their initial input cost. Cost per bed is about 60-70 rupees(INR) and Yield from one bed is appx. 1 kg to 1.5 kg ie about Rs. 200/- (INR) return as per market price of mushroom. So farmers can get net profit of of 130/- or atleast Rs. 100/- profit per bed (deducting all the risk factors) within 15 days.
Farmers/Entrepreneurs having 3-4 decimal (1200 sq. ft) of land can earn monthly profit of Rs. 20,000/-per month through paddy straw mushroom cultivation. Paddy straw cultivation beds are laid out under well ventilated shed(shed of any material) having its four sides covered by Jute bags, bamboo mats or vertiver root mats (Bena Chera) or any other net for good ventilation of air. A shed of 1000 sq ft. can support 100 beds(Paddy straw) per 15 days(production cycle) or 200 beds per month.
So the Profit per month from 1000 sq. ft bed
=Rs 100 profit per bed x 200 beds per month)
= Rs. 20,000/-
(as one bed can produce 1 kg of paddy straw mushroom giving profit return of Rs.100.)
PADDY STRAW MUSHROOM CULTIVATION WEB LINK :
Paddy Straw Mushroom Cultivation Process Video
Oyster Mushroom Cultivation Process Video
PADDY STRAW MUSHROOM CULTIVATION
Paddy Straw Mushroom Cultivation Method Video
Different Aspects of Paddy Straw Mushroom Cultivation in Oriya
Required Ingredients :
1) Paddy Straw : Straw of local paddy is usually good for paddy straw mushroom cultivation. Specially straw from paddy variety with white primodia, narrow, stiff and un-threshed(by bullock or tractor) is required. Paddy straw when trodden by bullocks or tractor, loose stiffness and easily rots when it comes in contact with water, gets compressed which is not good for mushroom mycelia growth. As such straw obtained through harvesting by beating the straw bundles with hand are always good for mushroom cultivation. Only the top and panicle portion is removed. Paddy straw should be harvested leaving only 4” to 6” from the ground level. This is because on fungal species is found at the base portion which caused rotting and contamination of the straw subsequently. Paddy straw from variety C.R.1014, 1242, 141, T90, is good for preparing mushroom beds.A mushroom bed of 2 feet length, 2 ft wide and 2 ft height is prepared from 10 to 20 bundles of straw as per the thickness of the straw bundles. First hold on the top of straw bundle and loosen the binding of the straw bundle by doing so the leaves come out. If leaves will remain, it will hold more water for long time and cause rotting of the straw soon.
2) Mushroom Spawn: For one bed of mushroom 250 to 350 gm of mushroom spawn (seed) required. The culture should be free from infection.
3) Nutrition : For cultivation of paddy straw mushroom, powder of bengalgram, lentil, horsegram, red gram, blackgram or green gram and wheat bran and paddy husk is used. Powder obtained from bengalgram with its seed coat gives more yield form powder of bengalgram with seed coat.
Material required to prepare one bed of Mushroom :
Straw bundle :- 15-20 bundles of straw OR 15 kg (as per thickness of bundle)
Mushroom Spawn(Seed) :- One bottle Or 250 gm
Nutrition :- 250 gm of Bengal gram or red gram
Bed Size :- 2 ft x 2 ft OR 1.5 ft x 1.5 ft
Space :- 3ft x 3ft OR 2.5ft x 2.5ft ( 7-10 sq ft/bed )
Cultivation Method :
1) Remove leaves of the straw bundle and cut to 2ft size with a straw cutter. The required number of straw bundles are soaked in a tank of clean water for 12 to 16 hours. Water from ditches, ponds etc which are dirty should not be used. At the time of soaking use 100 ml of formalin and 10 grams of bavistin per 100 liters of water. Where electric heaters are available hot water should be used for treating the straw bundles.
2) Remove the straw bundles from water and keep in standing positions for 5 to 6 hours so as to drain out the excess water from the outside and inside the straw bundles and only 75 % moisture will remain in the straw bundles.
3) Spawn of 2 to 3 weeks should be used. Break the bottle and remove the glasses. Use cotton to remove small glass piece if stick to the spawn. Divide the spawn to 4 equal parts and make small pieces of spawn having size of thumb finger.
4) Use 250 gms of Dal powder grinded from whole grain of bengalgram. Else use paddy husk or rice bran to reduce the cost of cultivation. It should also be divided to 4 equal parts.
5) After arranging straw, spawn and nutrition, prepare the beds. First put a layer of straw of 6 inches height. See that the bases of straw are towards outer side and top portion are inside. Let the direction of the first layer be east-west or north-south. Take one part of the spawn out of the 4 parts and put the spawn pieces on the bed leaving 2 inches from outer side and at 3 inches distance. Sprinkle the dal powder of Bengalgram or redgram over the spawn blocks and nearby area.
6) Over the first layer, put again 6 inches height of straw. Arrange the straw on the opposite direction of the first layer (East-west of North-south). Take of another part of spawn and put the spawn piece at a distance of 3 to 4 inches as in the first layer. Also sprinkle the dal powder over it as done previously.
7) Put the third layer of 6 inches of straw in parallel direction to the 1st layer and put rest 2 parts of spawn all over the third layer and sprinkle 2 parts of Dal powder too.
8) Cover the third layer with the final 4th layer of straw of 1 to 2 inches width, parallel to the 2nd layer. Now press the layer at the top so that the mycelium can grow well. Cut the spilled straw all around the bed with the help of a seizure.
9) After the bed is ready, cover it with white polythene or stitched sheet of cement/fertilizer bags. First 4-5 days keep the beds as such. After 4-5 days the polythene sheet may be removed for 30 minutes daily for aeration and spray water only on portion of bed where straw is dried.
10) After 10 to 11 days when mycelium growth is observed, the polythene cover may be removed exposing the bed to open air.
11) Harvesting : First flush of mushroom comes out after 13-15 days of sowing. The mushroom should be harvested at bud stage whose demand is more in the market and also tasty on cooking.
After 14-15 days first phase of harvesting is done giving 90 % of the yield. The beds may be retained for another after 5-10 days for the second phase of harvest of 10 % or can be taken outside for second phase harvest so that fresh bed can be laid out to save time of harvest cycle.
OYSTER MUSHROOM CULTIVATION PROCESS
A large number of agriculture, forest and agro-industrial byproducts are useful for growing oyster mushroom. Substrates should be fresh, dry and free from mould infestation. Oyster mushroom can utilize a large number of agro-wastes including straw of wheat, paddy and ragi, stalks and leaves of maize, jowar, bajra, and cotton, sugarcane bagasse, jute and cotton waste, peanut shells, dried grasses, sunflower stalks, used tea leaf and discarded waste paper. It can also be cultivated using industrial wastes like paper mill sludge, coffee by-products, tobacco waste etc. About 1.5 -2.0 kg of good substrate will be required per bag of 80 cm x 40 cm size.
Three to four week old non-contaminated spawn @ 10 % of dry weight of the substrate is required for the purpose. Spawn of good quality should be collected from a reliable source. Further, the species / variety should be chosen basing on the temperature and relative humidity of the cropping season of the locality. Just prior to use the 200 gm Spawn is extracted from the bottle with hooked iron rod and divided into four parts.
Some of the common supplements are wheat bran, rice bran, soybean cake, groundnut cake, maize meal, horse gram powder, cotton seed meal etc. wheat bran and rice bran should be used at the rate of 10%, while other should be tried @ 3-6% on dry weight basis of the substrate. Supplements after pasteurization are thoroughly mixed with straw while spawning. Addition of supplements increases the substrate temperature and hence, it is risky during the work period to supplement the substrate.
Transparent polythene tube of 125-150 gauge with a dimension of 80 cm x 40 cm is suitable for oyster cultivation. Bags of 60 cm x 40 cm may also be used for the purpose. The bags can be reused for the second crop after proper cleaning.
Freshly procured good quality substrate is chopped to 4-5 cm size by a chaff cutter and steeped in a chemical solution of carbendazim 50 % WP(75ppm) and formal dehide (500 ppm) for a period of 6 hours. Then the straw is taken out and excess water is to be drained. Ninty liters of water mixed with 7.5 g carbendazim 50% WP and 125 ml formaldehide(37-40%) will be appropriate for the purpose. However seam and hot water treatment methods are preferred as there are reports of phytotoxicity associated with chemical treatment. Here, the pre-wetted substrate after chopping is soaked in hot water (65-700 C ) for one our. In case of steam pasteurization, the pre-wetted straw is steam pasteurized at 60-700 C for one hour, cooled at room temperature and then seeded with spawn. Through pasteurization, the competitor moulds are either killed or their growth is suppressed for 25-40 days after spawning.
The substrate is dried in shade for few hours in order to maintain the moisture level of 55-60%. The substrate necessary for raising one bag may be divided into four lots after drying.
Raising of bag
One end of the polythene tube is tied with a rubber band and the moistened substrate is put inside to a height of 15 cm. Substrate is then gently pressed and one part each of spawn(50g) and supplement(50 g) spread at the periphery close to polythene(See the Video). Like wise, four such layers are made and the bag is closed at the upper end after pressing the substrate. For a bag out of 2 kg of dry straw, 200 g each spawn and supplement will be used. 15-20 small holes(0.5 cm diameter) should be made on all sides to facilitate gas exchange. Instead of layer spawning, mixed spawning may also be followed where the required quantity of spawn is mixed with the prepared substrate(soaked straw) and incorporated into the bag. The bags are then incubated in a well ventilated room at 250 C. During the mycelial growth bags should not be opened.
Once the mycelium has fully colonized the substrate forming a thick mycelial mat, it is ready for fruiting. Contaminated bags with mould may be discarded while bags with patchy mycelia growth may be left for few more days for completion of the mycelia growth. These bags are opened after 15-16 days. But in case of P. eous and P. djamore var. are opened after 12 days as fruiting comes out within these. The bundles after opening are arranged on shelves at a distance of 20 cm between each bag in the tier or hanged with plastic rope. Appropriate temperature (20-300 C), humidity(70-80%) and light(200 lux) with good ventilation should be maintained in the cropping room. Bags are watered twice daily depending upon the weather condition.
Primordia(small eggs) appears within 4-5 days of opening the bag that came to the harvestable stage 3-4 days later. The mushrooms should be harvested when the cap begins to fold inwards. Picking is done by twisting the mushroom gently without disturbing the surrounding fruit bodies. Crop should not be watered before harvesting. The second crop appears after 7-10 days. Hence within 45 days crop period, 3-4 crops are expected. With exception, under suitable growing condition, a biological efficiency of 100% is achieved in commercial farms.
Yield Per Bag : 1.5 kg - 2.0 Kg.
By Dr. Kailash Behari Mohapatra &
Dr. Niranjan Chinara
We are providing training on Mushroom Production- both Mushroom Spawn Production and Mushroom Cultivation. Some training details are below :
Training duration : 4 days
Training Charges: Rs. 10,000/- per trainee (Including lodging & fooding in Bhubaneswar )
Place of training :
Day 1 - In-house orientation 1 day at Bhubaneswar
Day-2 - Orientation-cum-demonstration at laboratory condition, Bhubaneswar
Day-3 - Demonstration at two other small scale spawn unit by individual entrepreneur nearby Bhubaneswar (20 km), Orissa, INDIA
Day-4 - Recap, Question and Clarification Session, Planning for Mushroom cultivation and Spawn (seeds) Unit set up for trainees.
Advance Registration Amount :- INR Rs. 2000.00
Number of trainees per batch : 15-20 trainees
Those interested in training, fill up the form above or contact us in the address, mail & phone number given in side bar at top right side.
Field Training or Onsite training:
We provide field/onsite training to cultivar groups, associations, SHGs, Organisations or Institutions on payment of Resource Person charges of Rs.2000/- per person per day and other touring expenses.(Services inside Odisha and neighbouring states only)
MAJOR EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF INDIAN SUBCONTINENT
- PADDY STRAW MUSHROOM (Volvariella volvacea)
- GREY OYSTER (Pleurotus Sajor caju)
- TREE OR PEARL OYSTER (Pleurotus ostreatus)
- BUTTON MUSHROOM (Agaricus bisporus)
- Milky Mushroom (Calocybe indica)
- SHIITAKE MUSHROOM (Lentinula edodes)
- WINTER MUSHROOM (Flammulina velutipes)
- BLACK EAR (Auricularia auricular)
NUTRITIVE VALUES OF DIFFERENT EDIBLE MUSHROOM
IMPORTANCE OF MUSHROOM CULTIVATION
· Mushroom as a Source of Protein and other Food Nutrient
· Unique Flavour and Exotic Taste
· Medicinal Properties
· Easy and Simple Production Procedure
· Labour Intensive Method of Cultivation
· Absence of Crop Competition
· Suitable Enterprise for Farm Ladies
· Utilization of Agro-Wastes in Mushroom Cultivation
· Export Potential
Unlike agriculture, mushroom seed (Spawn) production involves sophisticated technology with high investment requiring laboratory and equipments with accessories. The major constraint in mushroom production is nonavailability of spawn. The technology of spawn production is given by Eco-care and Aware. Three roomed house with some equipments, furniture, glasswares, chemicals and some other accessories are required to start spawn lab. Keeping in view of demand for mushroom, it is urgently needed to have one spawn lab in each block. If 50 to 100 mushroom growers will be developed in a cluster of villages to grow minimum one quintal to two quintals of mushroom per day, one spawn unit can be set up there to feed the spawn to these mushroom growers. Each spawn producer should have its own mushroom production farm to know the efficacy of his own spawn as well as demonstrate the mushroom production technology to others which will promote the sale of spawn. By this both spawn unit and mushroom farm will be economically viable.
(1) To produce 200 spawn bottles from two shift i.e. 5,000 bottles of spawn assuming 25 working days per month.
(2) To create income of Rs. 30,000/- per month from spawn & mushroom farm.
REQUIREMENT FOR SPAWN UNIT
A. Land and building
Four roomed building will be essential to state spawn lab. one room will be used to multiply fungus which is called “inoculation chamber” with another room will be devoted to prepare media for culture tube an spawn bottle or which it is called media room. It can be used as media for culture tube an spawn bottle or which it is called media room. It can be used as media cum office room. Fourth room will be kept as store room. The incubation chamber will be air tight fitted with light and U.V. Light. The maintenance of aseptic condition in inoculation chamber is must for production of quality spawn. Initially incubation chamber can be made in ordinary room keeping some iron rocks to accommodate spawn bottles. After wards air conditioning machine can be fitted to maintain desired temperature.
1. Total Plinth area of spawn Lab – 25' × 12' = 300sq. ft.
2. Inoculation chamber - 8' × 7' = 56 sq. ft.
3. Ante room - 4' × 7' = 28 sq. ft.
4. Incubation Chamber - 12' × 8' = 96 sq. ft.
5. Office cum Media room - 10' × 8' = 80 sq. ft.
6. Store room - 10' × 4' = 40 sq. ft.
B. Equipment and Machineries
(a) Auto clave :
One autoclaves are required to sterilize the media in culture tube and wheat medium in spawn bottles.(operated by both electricity and gas)
(b) Furniture : To keep spawn bottle or pouches, some iron racks are needed in incubation chamber. One table, with two stools are to be kept in inoculation chamber. One long table will be kept in media room along with some stools.
(c) Accessories :
(i) Weighing balance will be useful for weighing the chemicals required for preparing media and for spawn production.
(ii) Chula with cylinder : To boil wheat and to prepare media for culturing. Chula with Cylinder are necessary.
(d) Glass wares, chemicals and raw materials : culture tube, innoculation needle, measuring cylinder, dextrose, plastic busket, Agar agar, Formaldehyde, Cotton, Wheat.